Some couples are unable to conceive a child because of infertility issues or a blocked fallopian tube in the case of women. As medical science kept on advancing, new methods were discovered to develop an egg artificially in a glass container. The first successful test tube baby & IVF was done in 1934 and the world’s first IVF human baby was born in 1978. IVF and Test Tube Baby treatment is also chosen to avoid the passing of genetic defects.
What is a test tube baby?
A test-tube baby is a baby who is conceived by IVF. IVF and Test Tube Baby is in vitro fertilization where the word “vitro” means glass. In such cases, the fertilization is done outside the uterus in a glass vessel by combining a female egg with a sperm.
IVF and test-tube babies are the same with no difference at all. It is just that doctors specifically use the term IVF instead of test-tube babies.
Test Tube Baby Process
Conceiving a baby through a test takes quite some time. First, the doctor checks for the ovarian reserve and does all other checks. A USG is done to check the condition of the ovaries and the other reproductive organs. After discussing all the legal and emotional issues, the process starts. This is a 5 step procedure.
As IVF requires multiple eggs therefore fertility drugs are given to the woman in the first step. The patient will be under the doctor’s observation with regular blood tests and USGS.
This is a surgical procedure where a needle will be inserted through a woman’s vagina to the ovaries and an egg containing the follicle shall be removed by suction. This procedure is called follicular aspiration.
In this procedure, the sperm from the semen sample is mixed with the egg in a petri dish. The sperms fertilize the eggs overnight.
Culture of the embryo
This glass dish shall be kept under a doctor’s supervision in a laboratory and will be monitored constantly to check whether the egg is dividing or developing. In this stage, the embryos also undergo genetic testing.
Three to five days after fertilization, the embryo has become big enough, it is implanted into a woman’s uterus with the help of a catheter. The later process of pregnancy takes place in the embryo and it takes 6-10 days.
Complications associated with IVF
Doctors consider the IVF treatment quite safe and there are high chances of egg fertilisation. However, it can come with some complications.
- Multiple pregnancies
- Ectopic pregnancy where the egg is implanted outside the uterus.
- Some patients can develop Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) where excess fluid is filled in the abdomen and chest.